The Abstracts of the paper carried by the Journal of JACA
The interior of the International Space Station (ISS) is maintained at the same pressure as the Earth. The air in the ISS, as the air on the earth, consists of about 20% oxygen and about 80% nitrogen. The air in the ISS constantly circulates, removing carbon dioxide, dust and trace pollutants by human activity, and adjusting oxygen and humidity level. ISS control an environment where people can live comfortably. This paper introduces technologies such as air purification of spacecraft.
Astronauts already stay in the International Space Station for several months to a year, and manned Moon and Mars missions may be realized within the next two decades. To realize long-term space habitation, accumulation of fundamental knowledge on microorganisms in the environment is essential to ensure safety and healthy lives. Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos) are conducting continuous microbial monitoring of each module of the ISS to understand the abundance of microorganisms and their diversity in the environment. In this review, in addition to the results of microbial monitoring in the ISS Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo”, we introduce the microbiological activities for realizing long-term space habitation.
Spacecraft have various sensors, and contamination on them is fatal to the success of the on-orbit missions. The amount of contamination is specified for each phase from the manufacturing of spacecraft to the mission period. It is necessary to properly control the amount of contamination all through the phases, that is, manufacturing, environmental testing, transportation, and launch. In this paper, we have discussed topics concerning environmental testing of spacecraft at the Tsukuba Space Center, such as the cleanliness, temperature and humidity control of the clean room, and contamination control in thermal vacuum tests. Especially in thermal vacuum tests, molecular contamination are likely to occur, and the risks of contaminating spacecraft are high, so the amounts are to be precisely grasped while reduction measures being implemented. In addition, as an example of clean rooms to be required in the future, we have referred to the researches of energy-saving operation of existing clean rooms and those developed for future satellite projects.
History and current trend of national standards for general ventilation air filters
–Comparisons of ISO, ASHRAE, EN and JIS–
This paper provides a basic overview on history of national standards for general ventilation air filters in Japan, US and Europe. And receltly published International Standard, ISO16890 is introduced. Moreover, this makes a comparison of filter efficiencies and the classifications among each standards of ISO, ASHRAE, EN and JIS. Future issues are commented as well.
New establishment of JIS B 9908-1～6
Test method of air filter units for ventilation and electric air cleaners for ventilation
ASHRAE 52.2, EN 779, JIS B 9908, etc. are used for the test method of the air filter unit for ventilation, but the classification method of the filter is different in each region. ISO/TC 142 standards development consultations started by national representatives and the international standard was established as the ISO 16890 series in 2016.
Following the establishment of the ISO standard, JIS B 9908 series has been newly established as a six-part standards including electric air cleaners and HEPA filters these are outside the scope of the ISO standard series.
Air cleanliness in cleanrooms was standardized in 1995 by the JIS B9920 and revised in 1989 and in 2002 following to the ISO 14644-1 and 2. JIS B9920 needed to revise following to the revised ISO 14644-1:2015 and -2:2015.
JIS B9920 series are newly enacted on March 2019 with abolition of old JIS 9920-2002. JIS B9920 series consist of Part 1 : Classification of air cleanliness by particle concentration and Part 2 : Monitoring to provide evidence of cleanroon performance related to air cleanliness by particle concentration. Other parts of JIS B9920 series will be integrated with the revision of related JIS B9917 series part by part. This paper informs the abstract of the new JIS B9920 series.
In a food manufacturing facility and a distribution warehouse, keeping quality and cross contamination become the most important problem. Air curtain and air shower is used as a device which manages the hygiene by HACCP. (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) We report the some method of the HACCP introduction.